Oliver Cromwell (1599 to 1658) was an English general who led the Parliamentarians against the Royalists in the English Civil Wars (1642 – 1651). He defeated King Charles I and executed him on 30 January 1649. He made himself Lord Protector from 1653 until his death in 1658. This is the only time England has not had a King or Queen. After his death the English decided we didn’t like not having a Monarch so Charles II was returned from exile and declared King! They decided to exhume his body from Westminster Abbey and hang him even though he had been dead for 3 years! Punishment for being a traitor against the Crown!